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The key points of 'The Deficit Myth: Modern Monetary Theory and How to Build a Better Economy' by Stephanie Kelton

The Deficit Myth by Stephanie Kelton challenges conventional wisdom on government deficits and presents Modern Monetary Theory as a framework for understanding the economy. In this article, we will explore the key points of the book and its implications for economic policy.

Key Takeaways

  • Modern Monetary Theory challenges the traditional view on government deficits and emphasizes the role of currency-issuing governments in managing the economy.

  • Government spending can be used to achieve full employment and address social issues without being constrained by revenue.

  • Taxation serves a different purpose in a sovereign currency system and should be used to control inflation and redistribute wealth.

  • Inflation is the primary constraint on government spending and can be managed through various policy tools.

  • The implementation of Modern Monetary Theory faces political resistance and requires a shift in mindset towards a new economic paradigm.



Stephanie Kelton's The Deficit Myth challenges conventional economic wisdom by presenting Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) as a transformative lens through which to view government spending, debt, and taxation. The central thesis posits that a sovereign currency issuer, like the US, is not constrained by deficits in the same way a household is. Instead, Kelton argues that such governments have more fiscal space than traditionally thought, as they can always create more money to pay off their debts.

MMT suggests that the real limits to spending are inflation and the availability of real resources, rather than arbitrary budget constraints. This perspective shifts the focus from balancing budgets to achieving broader economic goals like full employment and social welfare.

  • Understanding MMT's core principles

  • Debunking the deficit myth

  • Reimagining fiscal responsibility

  • Exploring the potential for a more equitable economy

Key Concepts

At the heart of 'The Deficit Myth' is the idea that governments that control their own currency can never run out of money in the same way a household or business can. This is because they can always create more currency to finance their debts. A central concept in the book is Modern Monetary Theory (MMT), which challenges conventional views on fiscal policy and government spending.

  • Sovereign Currency: Governments with a sovereign currency, like the US, can issue more money to meet obligations.

  • Sectoral Balances: The economy is split into three sectors – government, foreign, and private. The financial position of each affects the others.

  • Public Purpose: Government spending should aim to achieve full employment and price stability.

The book also emphasizes the role of taxes not primarily as a means to fund government spending, but as a tool for managing inflation and influencing economic behavior.


While 'The Deficit Myth' has been influential in shaping discussions around modern monetary theory (MMT), it has not been without its critics. Critics argue that MMT underestimates the risk of inflation, particularly in scenarios where the economy is at or near full capacity. They caution that without proper checks, excessive government spending could lead to an overheated economy.

Critics also point out that MMT's reliance on taxation to curb inflation is not as straightforward as it may seem. The effectiveness of taxation as a tool to control inflation is debated, with concerns about the timing and impact of such measures on different economic classes.

Lastly, the practicality of implementing MMT principles in a political environment that is deeply entrenched in traditional economic thinking is questioned. The following list outlines the main points of contention:

  • The potential for runaway inflation

  • The complexity of using taxes to manage inflation

  • The challenge of maintaining currency credibility

  • Political and institutional barriers to MMT adoption

Impact on Economic Policy

Government Spending

In 'The Deficit Myth', Stephanie Kelton challenges the conventional view of government spending by arguing that a government that issues its own currency, like the United States, is not constrained by revenue when it comes to spending. Instead, the limitation is inflation, not solvency. Governments can afford to spend more on public services and infrastructure without the need to balance the budget like a household.

Fiscal space, or the capacity of the government to spend, is redefined in the context of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). Kelton suggests that the real measure of fiscal sustainability is not the deficit but the health of the economy and the utilization of resources.

  • The government's role in economic stability

  • Job creation through public sector investment

  • The potential for deficit spending to drive growth

Kelton's perspective on government spending has implications for how we view economic policy and the role of the state in fostering a robust economy. It opens up a dialogue about the possibilities that lie within our current economic framework, especially when considering the potential for full employment and improved public welfare.


In "The Deficit Myth," Stephanie Kelton challenges traditional views on taxation. Taxation is not primarily about funding government expenditures, but rather about controlling inflation and managing the distribution of wealth. Kelton argues that in a sovereign currency system, the government does not need to rely on taxes to spend; it can create money as needed.

Taxation serves several key purposes in Modern Monetary Theory (MMT):

  • To manage aggregate demand and thus control inflation.

  • To discourage undesirable economic behavior.

  • To redistribute wealth and address inequality.

While this perspective is enlightening, it also raises questions about the limits of taxation in a modern economy and how it interacts with other fiscal tools. The debate on the effectiveness of taxation as a policy instrument continues to be a central theme in discussions about MMT.


In the context of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT), inflation is a central concern when it comes to government spending without the traditional constraints of revenue. MMT posits that a government that issues its own currency can never run out of money in the same way a household can. However, this does not mean that such a government can spend without limit. The real constraint, according to MMT, is inflation.

When the economy is at full capacity, additional spending can lead to inflationary pressures. MMT advocates suggest that inflation can be managed not just by adjusting interest rates, but also through fiscal policy tools such as taxation and spending cuts. Here's a simplified view of the proposed mechanisms:

  • Taxation: To cool an overheating economy and curb inflation.

  • Spending Cuts: To reduce the amount of money in circulation.

  • Job Guarantee Programs: To stabilize prices by providing a buffer stock of labor.

Critics argue that MMT underestimates the risk of inflation and the difficulty of implementing timely policy responses. They caution against the potential for runaway inflation if the government's spending is not properly checked.

Challenges and Controversies

Political Acceptance

The political acceptance of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) is a complex and nuanced issue. MMT challenges conventional wisdom about government finance, which has led to a polarized reception among policymakers. On one hand, some progressive politicians have embraced MMT's implications for expansive fiscal policy, while on the other, conservative voices have raised concerns about its potential to cause runaway inflation and undermine fiscal discipline.

Political acceptance of MMT is not just about academic agreement; it involves a broader societal understanding and endorsement of its principles. The following list outlines the key factors influencing political acceptance of MMT:

  • Public perception and the ability to communicate MMT concepts effectively

  • The track record of MMT-informed policies in practice

  • The alignment of MMT with current political and economic goals

  • The willingness of political leaders to adopt new economic frameworks

Implementation Issues

Implementing the principles of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) presents several practical challenges. The transition from traditional fiscal policies to those advocated by MMT could be complex and disruptive. For instance, shifting the focus from balancing budgets to ensuring full employment requires a fundamental change in how governments approach economic management.

Adjusting the role of taxes from primarily revenue generation to controlling inflation and inequality is another hurdle. This would necessitate a reevaluation of the entire tax code, which is a politically sensitive and technically demanding task.

  • Establish a new framework for fiscal policy

  • Redefine the purpose of taxation

  • Develop mechanisms for controlling inflation

  • Educate policymakers and the public on MMT principles

Opposing Views

While Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) has its proponents, it also faces significant opposition from various economic schools of thought. Critics argue that MMT's approach to fiscal policy could lead to runaway inflation if not carefully managed. The potential for mismanagement of the economy is a central concern among skeptics, who fear that the theory grants too much power to policymakers.

  • Traditional Keynesian economists caution against the disregard for budget deficits.

  • Monetarists emphasize the importance of controlling the money supply to prevent inflation.

  • Supply-side economists argue that reducing taxes and regulations is the best way to stimulate growth, rather than increasing government spending.


In conclusion, 'The Deficit Myth: Modern Monetary Theory and How to Build a Better Economy' by Stephanie Kelton provides a thought-provoking perspective on the role of deficits in the economy. Kelton challenges conventional wisdom and offers insights into how we can rethink economic policy to create a more equitable and sustainable future. By questioning the traditional views on deficits and government spending, Kelton encourages readers to consider alternative approaches that prioritize the well-being of society. This book serves as a catalyst for reevaluating our understanding of fiscal policy and opens up new possibilities for shaping a better economic system.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Modern Monetary Theory (MMT)?

Modern Monetary Theory is an economic theory that suggests governments, as issuers of currency, can never run out of money and can therefore spend as needed to achieve full employment and other policy goals.

How does MMT challenge traditional economic thinking?

MMT challenges the belief that government spending is constrained by tax revenue or borrowing, arguing instead that the real limit on spending is inflation.

Does MMT advocate for unlimited government spending?

No, MMT does not advocate for unlimited spending. It emphasizes using government spending to achieve full employment and price stability, while being mindful of inflationary pressures.

What is the role of taxation in MMT?

Taxation in MMT serves multiple purposes, including controlling inflation, redistributing wealth, and creating demand for the currency. It is not primarily used to fund government spending.

How does MMT address concerns about inflation?

MMT proposes using various tools, such as taxation and adjusting interest rates, to manage inflation and ensure price stability while pursuing full employment.

Are there any real-world examples of MMT in action?

While MMT principles have influenced economic policy discussions, there are no countries that have fully adopted MMT in practice. Some policies, like the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, have shown elements of MMT-like thinking.

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